شهادت امام رضا ( ع ) - نمایش محتوای تولیدات ویژه
مورخين تاريخ ولادت ايشان را به سالهاي 148، 151 و 153 هجري قمري و در روزهاي نوزدهم رمضان، دهم رجب و يازدهم ذيالقعده ذكر كردهاند. در مورد سالروز وفات ايشان نيز اختلاف نظر وجود دارد و محققين وفات ايشان را طي سالهاي 202، 203 و 206 هجري قمري محتمل دانستهاند. اما قول مشهور در مورد ولادت آن بزرگوار سال 148 هجري قمري و در خصوص وفات ايشان سال 203 هجري قمري است. با پذيرش چنين اقوالي طول عمر با بركت امام رضا (ع) پنجاه و پنج سال ميشود. دوران 200 ساله امام حضرت ثامنالائمه(ع) با حكومت پنج ساله هارون الرشيد، سه ساله خلافت محمد امين و 13 ساله زمامداري عبدالله مامون همزمان است. كنيههاي امام رضا ابوالحسن و ابوعلي است و لقبهايي چون رضا، صابر، زكي، ولي، فاضل، صديق، رضي، سراج الله، نورالمهدي، قرهالعين المومنين، كفوالملك، كافيالخلق را براي آن حضرت برشمردند. حضرت علي بن موسيالرضا (ع) دوران امامت خود را از سال 183 هجري قمري در اوج خفقان سياسي دنياي اسلام و اقتدار حكومت عباسيان آغاز كرد. اين مرحله از دوران زندگي ايشان از تاثيرگذارترين مراحل تاريخ تشيع است، عزيمت اجباري امام به خراسان بنا بر اصرار مامون و پذيرفتن تقاضاي سياسي خليفه عباسي مبني بر در دست گرفتن زمامداري مسلمين و پذيرش منصب ولايتعهدي به اجبار و اكراه از وقايع مشهور تاريخ اسلام است. هجرت تاريخي امام از مدينه به مرو، استقبال گستره شيعيان و هواداران اهل بيت در مسير حركت كاروان آن حضرت و انتشار حديث سلسله الذهب و اقدام به برگزاري نماز عيد فطر و برگزاري جلسات مناظره با علماي اهل كتاب از اين دوره زندگي امام در تاريخ به يادگار مانده است. عاقبت با توجه به اوجگيري احساسات مذهبي به نفع امام رضا (ع) و بروز اختلافات خانوادگي در خاندان عباسي، آن امام بزرگوار به دسيسه چيني مامون خليفه عباسي مسموم و به شهادت رسيدند و پيكر مطهر ايشان در حوالي طوس به خاك سپرده شد و اكنون بعد از گذشت ساليان سال اين مزار كعبه اهل ولايت از سراسر جهان است.
Imam Reza (PBUH)
Imam Ali bin Mousa al-Reza (PBUH), the eighth Imam of Shiites , is of the progeny of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) and his eighth successor. At age 35 he became the leader of the Islamic union. His life was contemporary to the Abbasid reign and therefore, he suffered great difficulties made by the Abbasids. Finally, he was martyred by Ma’moon (the contemporary Abbasid Caliph) at the age of 55. This article will briefly discuss an overview of his life.
His name, title and honorary name
His name is Ali, his title is Abu al-Hassan, and his most famous honorary name is “Reza”, meaning “Satisfaction”. According to his son, Imam Muhammad Taqi (PBUH), the ninth Imam, “The glorious and mighty Lord named him Reza because Allah was pleased with him in the heavens and the Prophet of Allah and the Imams of guidance were pleased with him on earth”. Also, his friends and relatives and even his enemies were satisfied with him (because of his great moral qualities)”.
One of his famous titles is Alim Al Muhammad (scholar of Prophet’s progeny). His success in the different disputes with the scholars of various religions indicates his high knowledge. We will discuss some incidents in this article. This ability and superiority in knowledge is a proof for his Imamat, as it can be inferred from his sayings, all this knowledge is revealed.
His father and mother
His father was Imam Mousa al-Kadhim (PBUH), the seventh Imam. He was martyred by Haroon on 138 (AH). His mother was Najmah.
Imam Reza (PBUH) was born on in the year 148 on the 11th of Ziqadah in Medina. It is narrated from his mother that: “When I was pregnant, I didn’t feel overweighed. When I was asleep, I heard the sound of praising Allah and the word of “La Ilaha Illa Allah” from my womb, but when I got up, I heard nothing. When my baby was born, he put his hands on the floor and raised his head up and moved his lips, as he was saying something”.
Similar happenings have been narrated for other Imams or prophets, such as Jesus (PBUH), who according to the Quran, talked to the people although he was in a cradle.3
His life in Medina
Before traveling to Marv, Imam Reza (PBUH) lived in Medina; city where the shrine of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP) and his father’s grave exists. He was occupied with guiding people, indicating Islamic educations and Prophet’s (PBUH&HP) Sirah (manner and behavior). People of Medina loved him and assumed him as their father. Although he had spent most of his life in Medina, he had many followers throughout the Islamic counties. He points out this fact on a discussion about succession: “In fact succession didn’t make a distinction for me. When I was in Medina, people in east and west obeyed me and nobody was superior to me. They told me their requirements and I granted their requests and they treated me as a magnate.”
His Imamate was announced repeatedly by his father, grandfathers, and Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HP). Especially Imam Kazem (PBUH) mentioned him as the Imam after himself several times. For instance, one of his followers narrates, “One day Imam Kazem (PBUH) came to us, holding his son’s (Ali) hand. We were 60 people. He said:” Do you know me?” I said: “You are our leader.” He said:” Say my name and title.”
I said:” You are Mouse bin Jafar bin Muhammad. ”He said:” Who is this with me?”
I said: “Ali bin Mouse bin Jafar.”He said: “So profess that he is my representative during my life and my successor after my death.” He is further introduced as the eighth Imam in a saying of Prophet (PBUH&HP) narrated by Jaber. Also, Imam Sadegh (PBUH) told Imam Kazem (PBUH&HP) that the knowledge of Prophet’s (PBUH&HP) progeny is of your sons and he is your successor.
Imam Reza’s (PBUH) Imamate lasted eight years, which can be divided into three periods:
1-The first ten years was contemporary to Haroon’s caliphate.
2-The next five years was contemporary to Amin’s caliphate.
3-The last five years was contemporary to Ma’moon’s caliphate.
It was during the first period that great disasters, especially the martyrdom of Imam Kazem (PBUH), happened to the Alavi people (the children of Imam Ali (PBUH)). Haroon was instigated to kill Imam Reza (PBUH), but had not found the opportunity. After Haroon, Amin became the caliph. At that period, the government was weakened. Amin was drowned in his corruption and paid no attention to Imam and his followers. This period was peaceful for Imam and his followers.
However, Ma’moon killed his brother, Amin, and became the caliph. He suppressed the objectors and gained the control of all the Islamic countries. He gave the leadership of Iraq to one of his agents and settled in Marv. He then chose Fazl ibn Sahl, who was a great politician, as his minister. But the Alavi people were a threat to his government. After suffering murder, plunder and torture for a century, they had found the opportunity to object the government and to overthrow it. They were successful in gaining people’s support, because they also had suffered great losses from the Abbasid Caliphate. Therefore, Ma’moon decided not to confront them and wanted to bring back peace and security to strengthen his government.
So, after consulting Fazl, he came up with a treacherous plan. He decided to offer the caliphate to Imam Reza (PBUH) and withdraw himself. Because whether the Imam accepted or not, it would still be a victory for Ma’moon. If Imam accepted, and became Caliph allowing for Ma’moon to be the vice-caliph, that would guarantee the legitimacy of Ma’moon’s government. Thus Ma’moon decided to force the position of Caliph on Imam. It was then easier for him to eliminate
Imam Reza (PBUH) and become the legal leader. In this case, the Shiites would consider his government to be legitimate and would be satisfied with it and accepted him as Imam’s successor. Furthermore, the risings made against his government would lose their attraction and legitimacy.
However, if Imam didn’t accept the caliphate, he would then oblige Imam to be his successor and guarantee the legitimacy of his government through this to weaken the uprisings. On the other hand, he could make Imam settle near himself to control Imam and suppress his followers. In addition, Imam Reza’s (PBUH) Shiites and followers would criticize him for not accepting the caliphate and he would lose his respect among them.
The journey to the Khurasan
To accomplish his mentioned goals, Ma’moon sent some of his special agents to Imam Reza (PBUH) in Medina to force him to set on a journey to Khurasan. He also ordered to take Imam Reza (PBUH) through a path that has the least number of Shiites. The main roads in those days were the roads to Kufa, Jabal, Kermanshah, and Qom, which were all mainly Shiite cities. It seemed probable to Ma’moon that Shiites may get excited when they see Imam and prevent him to continue his travel to stay with them instead. To prevent these troubles, Ma’moon made Imam Reza (PBUH) travel through the paths of Basreh, Ahvaz, and Fars to Marv. His agents also watched Imam continuously and reported to Ma’moon on all of Imam’s activities.
A little from Imam’s wise words
Imam said:” The friend of everyone is his wisdom the enemy of everyone is his ignorance and silliness.”
Imam said:” Science and knowledge are like treasures, and the key to them is question, so ask and Allah may bless you, because by this question four groups benefit: 1.The asker 2.The teacher 3.The listener 4.The answerer”
Imam said:” Liking people and friendship is half of wisdom.”
Imam said:” There is a piece of advice in everything your eyes see.
Imam said:” Cleanliness and neatness is of virtues of the prophets.”
Ma’moon had told one of his servants not to cut his nails, and ordered him to put some poisons in his nails and prepare a pomegranate and pollute it with the poison. The servant obeyed his master and prepared the pomegranate. Ma’moon offered the poisonous pomegranate to Imam. Imam rejected, Ma’moon insisted and threatened Imam that he would kill him if he didn’t eat. Imam ate some pomegranate under obligation. After a few hours the poison polluted Imam’s body and he became ill. The morning of the next day (29th of Safar of year 203 H.G.) Imam Reza (PBUH) was martyred.
By divine will and power, Imam’s son, Imam Jawad (PBUH) washed his father’s body and said prayer for him. Imam’s body was buried in Mashhad with the accompaniment of many of his Shiites and followers.
Though centuries pass from the life of Imam Reza (PBUH), his holy shrine is the cause of blessing and honor for the Iranians.